The Guadalupe Mountains National Park
, located in west Texas, is a center of geological wonderment. This area preserves some of the exposed remains of the Capitan Reef, one of the worlds finest examples of ancient barrier reefs. Seawater and decade marine organisms deposited lime along the shelf of the Delaware Basin of the Permian Sea, forming a reef hundreds of feet thick. Erosion wore away the soft rock, which exposed the limestone of the Capitan Reef – this process continues today. The run off deposited salt on the flats which today are west of the park.
There is evidence left behind, pictographs and cooking pits that date back 12,000 years. Some of these sites are accessible to hikers. This area was the scene of a lot of blood shead between the Mescalero Apaches and Comanches. The Comanches had driven the Mescaleros to the area where they learned to survive on native plants and animals. The tribe roamed the area depending on the season and were eventially driven out of the Guadalupes by U.S. soldiers after a number of brutal battles. This area today still is an important cultural and spiritual sanctuary for decedents of the Mescalero. Members of the tribe return to the area to harvest agave which is used for ceremonial purposes.
Felix McKitrick was one of the first settlers in the Guadalupe Mountains, he worked cattle here during the 1870’s. McKittrick Canyon is named after him. Frijole Ranch was the first ranch house built in 1876 by the Rader brothers. The ranch house was the only major building in the region and served as a community center and regional post office from 1916 to 1942 – the ranch house has been restored and is a museum today. In 1908, Henry Belcher constructed a house for he, his wife and daughter. They lived there on the ranch for over 10 years at times supporting over 3,000 heads of longhorns. The wildlife in the area at that time included – bear, wolf, mountain lions, bighorn sheep and elk. Even some jaguar and grizzly would occasionally find refuge in the canyons. In the spring thousands of ducks, geese, cranes, and hawks would migrate along with many species of song birds. In a short period of the time the area was overgrazed and the animal population dwindled because of hunting, trapping , disease and the change of regional vegetation from grasses to shrubs.
In 1917, James Williams, from Louisiana, acquired the house and ranch property. He ran several hundred heads of longhorn for several years then switched to sheep and goats. The ranch was purchased by Judge J. C. Hunter in 1942 to be added to extensive holding he already had in the Guadalupe Mountains. After his death Hunter’s son sold the ranch to National Park Service in 1966. On October 15, 1966 President Lyndon Johnson signed the act establishing the park. The park opened in 1972.
The Guadalupe National Park contains Guadalupe Peak, which is the highest point in Texas at 8,749 feet in elevation. It also contains El Capitan which was a landmark by people traveling across the country to California. Later this same route was used by the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach – you can visit the ruins of the old stagecoach stain near the Pine Springs Center. The park covers 86,367 acres. There are numerous trails (over 80 miles) for both hiking and horseback riding. There are sites available for overnight camping.
The Guadalupe Mountain National Park is one of the least know parks in the National Park system – which only proves that there are a lot of folks out there missing a very special place! I asked a young girl who was hiking with her family what she enjoyed doing – she put her straight out, like wings, tuned in a circle and said “THIS IS IT!” She nailed it – if you are looking for an adventure in a beautiful place with tons of history – THIS IS IT!
“The mountains are calling and I must go” John Muir
Hidden on the backroads of Texas are thousands of historic cemeteries that contain important bits of history of the people who settled the Lone Star State. A wonderful example of this is the Port Isabel Cemetery
in Port Isabel, Texas. Every summer tens of thousands people travel on Hwy 100 through Port Isabel on there way to South Padre Island – by passing this remarkable cemetery that is one block off the highway (not exactly a backroad).
The one acre of land is located on property that the government of Mexico granted to Don Rafael Garcia in 1829. Garcia established a ranch named, El Fronton de Santa Isabel (Saint Elizabeth’s Bluff). The ranch was operated by ranch hands and Garcia continued to live in Matamoros, Mexico. In the early 1840 the site where the cemetery is located was used as an early burial ground for folks that worked on the ranch (no markers remain)
In December of 1849, the site was consecrated for use a Catholic cemetery by French Missionaries. It served as a bury site for people of all faiths. Later the land was owned by the Campeoni Family who had immigrated to the area from Italy in the early 19th century. In 1926 the family donated the cemetery site to the Catholic Church.
The first documented interment was Major Samuel Ringgold, who was mortally wounded int the Battle of Palo Alto on May 8, 1846, which was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War.
The Port Isabel Cemetery contain a recorded history of this settlement. Next time you travel to South Padre Island for a little sun in the fun, turn on you left turn signal and take a few minutes to visit The Port Isabel Cemetery.
“At the going down of the sun. And in the morning. We will remember them”…..British soldiers marker Torbruk Cemetery Libya
When traveling the backroads of Texas you need a full tank (or two) of gas and some good old Texas Music
! Thank goodness for satellite radio. Not only is Texas the birthplace of many great musicians, the state has been in the center of the developments of many types of music including; Tejano, Western Swing, jazz, country, rock, gospel, hip-hop (not to sure about how proud we are of that), and of last but surely not least The Blues.
You can journey back to the early indian tribes that left evidence of percussion and wind instruments, possible influencing Jethro Tull, one of my favorite bands from the 70’s – but I doubt it. Early Spanish conquistadors claimed the region that included what is now Texas, not only did they influence music in the region also the African slaves that they brought with them did also. By the 1820’s Mexico had declared their independence from Spain and American settlers began coming to the area – these immigrants brought Czech, German, Polish, French and other culture’s influences to the region’s music. The accordion had the greatest influence on early Texas music as it still does today. This instrument was adopted by many of the musicians in this melting pot of musical change – most notably by the Mexican population.
Until the mid 1800’s slavery was legal in Texas. Many of the early plantations were located in East Texas. Slave work songs were the beginning of Texas blues. As this form of music was developing on these plantations in other parts of the region folks would meet in local community centers and dance halls to enjoy music and dances from their homeland. As these different cultures began to melt together a truly Texas sound resulted – Texas Swing and country music. Bands would travel through the regions and these dance hall became the social center for all the local folks. Over time many new instruments were added – where would country music be without the Steel Guitar!
Hollywood definitely had a great influence on the awareness of Texas music with the birth of the “singing cowboy” traveling down those happy trails. Later the music started to adopt a more modern sound as country, blues, jazz, and other forms of music began influencing each other – this lead the birth of Honky Tonk, R&B, and OUTLAW COUNTRY!
ROCK AND ROLL – Texas artist were in the right there in the middle of it. One of the first rock and roll records, ROCK AWHILE, was recored in Houston in 1949 by Goree Carter who was born and raised there.
Texas has and continues to influence music – from primitive tribal beginning, early settlements social gathering, to current major venue events. The people who have contributed are to many to mention; a few are:
- Big Mama Thorton
- Blind Willie Johnson
- T-Bone Walker
- Freddie King
- Johnny and Edgar Winters
- Stevie Ray and Jimmy Vaughan
- Buddy Holley
- Roy Orbison
- Janis Joplin
- ZZ Top
- Freddie Fender
- Texas Tornados
- Los Lonely Boys
- COUNTRY: (where do you start)
- Bob Wills
- Ernest Tubb
- Gene Autry
- Tex Ritter
- Kenny Rogers
- Mac Davis
- THE OUTLAWS – Willy Nelson, Waylon Jennings, Jerry Jeff Walker, Billy Joe Shaver
- Guy Clark
- Clint Black
- Rober Earl Keen
- Lyle Lovett
- George Strait
- Pat Green
- Ray Wylie Hubbard
- AND SO MANY MORE…..no matter what is your favorite music….all that maters is to make it the soundtrack of your JOURNEY ON THE BACKROADS!
“Goin’ places that I’ve never been. Seein’ things that I many never see again. And I can’t wait to get on the road again”…….Willie Nelson
In far southwest Texas a vast area known as Big Bend
. This area is named for the vast curve of the Rio Grande River. Throughout the years people have passed trough this area, including Indian tribes, Spanish conquistadores, U.S. Soldiers, miners, ranchers, farmers, and many legendary outlaws and bandits. In the 1500’s several Indian tribes inhabited Big Bend
– including the Chisos and the Juman, both were nomadic groups that traveled and traded throughout the region and in Mexico. During this time the explorers from Spain came in search of gold and silver. They were followed by Franciscan missionaries who establish centers in which the natives could be evangelized.
Many changes came in the 1800’s. The Apaches began to invade the area and displaced the Chisos Indians. The Comanche passed through the area frequently on their way to raids into the Mexican interior. At the end of the Mexican-Amercan War (1848), the U.S. Army began to survey the previously uncharted land of the Big Bend region. Outpost were established and Forts were built to protect settlers from Indian attacks. A large portion of the soldiers during this time were African-American and became know as buffalo soldiers, a name given to them by the Native Americans. Lieutenant Henry Flipper, who was the first African American graduate from West Point serve in Shafter, Texas during part of the time. In the 1880’s ranchers began to settle in the area raising sheep, goats, and cattle. Toward the end of the 1800’s and into the early 1900’s valuable mineral deposits were discovered that brought settlers to work in the mines. Many small settlements were established, including Terlingua, Boquilas, Abojo, San Vicente, La Coyota, and others.
In 33 the Texas Legislature passed legislation establishing Texas Canyons State Park. Later that same year the park was renamed Big Bend State Park. In 1935, The U.S. Congress passed legislation to enable the acquisition of the land for a national park. The state of Texas deed the land that it had acquired to the federal government, on July 1, 1944, Big Bend National Park was open to visitors. Big Bend is one of the most remote national parks in the U.S. There are more that 1200 species of plants, over 600 species of vertebrates, and close to 3,600 insects species (some to sting). There have been over 450 species of birds recored in the area, making it a popular birdwatching destination.
In 2012, the park was named as an international dark-sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association, which means that it is one of ten locations in the world certified for dark-sky stargazing. The area has the darkest measured skies in the lower 48 states. Most nights you can see thousands of stars, bright plants and the clear outline of the Milky Way band. This is something that everyone should experience!
Throughout the area there are many outdoor activities, including camping, hiking, canoeing/rafting and even golf at the Lajitas resort. There are many interesting towns to visit, Terlingua, Marathon, Marfa, Fort Parker, Alpine, and others. Many people cross over to Boquillas, Mexico. A must is a drive west from Terlingua to Persidio on FM170, the River Road. The road follows the Rio Grande and is often mention on may of the top sceenic drive in the U.S.
A park ranger there shared an interesting fact about Big Bend. He said that it was the least visited national park but had the highest percent of of return visits than any of the other national parks. Not sure it this is true but I do know I have been back…….and will go back again!
For my part I know nothing with any certainty, but the sight of the stars makes me dream……Vincent Van Gogh
Terlingua is located southwest Texas near Big Bend National Park. It is the most visited ghost town in Texas. The name Terlingua comes from two Spanish word, tres and lenguas meaning “three tongues”. This was either because of the three languages that were spoken in the area at that time – English, Spanish, and Native American. Some believe it refers to the three forks of Terligua Creek. No mater how Ternligua received it name THIS IS A VERY COOL PLACE TO VISIT.
This area was first inhabited by Native Americans. The first settlement was a Mexican village on Terlingua Creek. In the mid-1880s, cinnabar, from which liquid mercury is extracted was discovered. Although the Indians had known about the cinnabar for a long time – they used the brute red color for body pigment – this discovery slowly changed the area as mining began to produce mercury. By the turn of the century, it became know widespread that the region was rich with mercury which was being extracted by four major producers – Marfa dan Mariposa Mining Company, California Hill, Lindheim and Dewees, and the Excelsior Company. A town had sprung up around the Marfa and Mariposa Mine which became know as Terlingua. A post office was opened in 1899.
In May of 1903, Howard Perry, a Chicago industrialist, incorporated the Chisos Mining Company and began producing immediately. Chisos Mining Company became the largest producer of mercury not only in the area but in the whole United States. Production continued for four decades.
By 1905 the population of Terlingua at the Marfa and Mariposa Mine was about 1,000 people. Another camp formed around the Chisos Mine, which was also named Terlingua. In 1910 the Marfa and Mariposa mine closed and the post office was moved to the Chisos location. The Chisos Mining Company owed and operated the entire town. It had a general store, doctor’s office, post office, the Chisos Hotel, a commissary, telephone service (sometimes), water department, and a school. The town was split in two sections – one for the Mexicans and the other for the Anglos. Later a gas station and theater were built. In 1906 Howard Perry built a mansion that overlooked the camp. It has been estimated that by 1934 the company had sold over $12 million in mercury – but like all good things must come to an end – production began to decline by 1936 and on October 1, 1942, the company filed for bankruptcy. It was purchased by the Texas Railway Equipment Company and operated as the Esperado Mine until the end of World War II in 1945. The population decline to a level that it was designated as a ghost town.
Tourism in the 1960’s and 1970’s, because of its proximity to Big Bend National Park brought new life to Terlingua. Growth was slow – in 1990 it had a population of 25. Today the population exceeds 250. Terlingua is a very popular tourist destination, provided many outdoor activities such as rafting, hiking, camping, mountain biking, and of course it is a favorite destination for motorcyclist. Terlingua is famous worldwide for its annual chili cook-off – in 1967 was crowned the “Chili Capital of the World. Over 10,000 “chili heads” attend the cook off each year.
While in Terlingua make sure you visit the old Starlight Theater, for a great meal, drinks, and live entertainment. Next door at the the gift shop, which was the company store, you can pick up a T-shirt or a Terlingua decal for the RV.
We save the best for last: After a great meal, great entertainment, and a brand new T-shirt – the most spectacular activity to engage in is stargazing -UNBELIEVABLE!
Viva Terlingua……Jerry Jeff Walker